Geoscience includes the study of geology and geophysics. A key component of the Board's mandate is collecting, storing, interpreting and distributing geoscientific information about offshore Nova Scotia. Under the Accord Acts, companies operating offshore are required to provide the Board with data it acquires, such as drill core cuttings and seismic information, subject to certain confidentiality periods. The Board stores this data at its Geoscience Research Centre in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, and online through its digital Data Management Centre. Both facilities are available for public use, free of charge. Based on this data, the Board's geoscientific staff produce resource assessments and other technical reports.

The Board has a key accountability for resource evaluation, data collection, curation and dissemination. The Board is accountable to build and develop a knowledge base for the Nova Scotia Offshore Area through the collection, curation, interpretation and dissemination of data from exploration and production activity.